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[Marc Weller is Professor of International Law and International Constitutional Studies at the University of Cambridge and Editor of the Oxford Handbook on the Use of Force in International Law.]

The international rules on the use of force are simple. Force may never be employed as a means of international policy. Force is only available by way of self-defence, if specifically authorized by the UN Security Council or, arguably, when strictly necessary to avert an overwhelming humanitarian emergency.

By Jen KirbyThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Jan 8, 2022

Protests that began over gas prices have ushered in unrest and Russian troops.

Days into demonstrations in Kazakhstan, it remains hard to fully grasp what’s happening on the ground.

Peaceful protests began in Zhanaozen, a city in the western corner of Kazakhstan, earlier this week. A rise in fuel prices in this oil-rich city triggered the demonstrations, though it tapped into deeper grievances about the country’s economic and political structure. Across other cities in Kazakhstan, including Almaty, the former capital, citizens flooded the streets in solidarity.

Akram Salehi

Chief Editor of the English Journal of International Relations.

It is well known that human beings pay much interest in peace from the ancient time until now. Because the word-peace, apart from being a pleasant word, also refers to the peaceful society and the beautiful world. It can be stated that peace is the greatest and highest goal or hope that everyone wishes to achieve personally and expects to be created in society and in the world. People have been trying by all means to gain peace.


  1. Ben Rich  Senior lecturer in History and International Relations, Curtin University


  1. Leena Adel PhD student, Political Science and International Relations, Curtin University

With nuclear talks between Iran, the US, and the other members of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) resuming on November 29, one question looms large. Is engagement with Iran likely to bear diplomatic fruit, or be squandered?

By Sohail Inayatullah

Futures studies researcher and a professor at the Graduate Institute of Futures Studies at Tamkang University in TaipeiTaiwan

This essay is based on two speeches, First, for the Systems Change Alliance conference on the Beyond the Great Reset on May 16, 2021, and second for the International Conference on the World in 50 Years to honor Sakharov, June 4th, St. Petersburg.
This essay first articulates the current planetary crisis. Then four alternative futures are developed.

By Fareed Zakaria

November 11, 2021

The joint agreement between the United States and China on “enhancing climate action” was rightly seen as a step forward — but, for now, a very small step. It did not have the kinds of specific targets that marked the 2014 agreement negotiated by the Obama administration that preceded the Paris accords. But it did suggest the resumption of serious dialogue between the world’s two largest economies and largest emitters of greenhouse gases — which would explain why so many nations felt the statement gave new energy to climate action.....

 Sohail Inayatullah, Satya Tanner, Jose Ramos, and Kiran Ahmed

While there is considerable commentary on the current politics in Afghanistan, this short piece focuses on alternative futures. The futures presented are not radical, rather they take a macro historical structural view understanding the conservative nature of Afghanistan. There is certainly the danger of reification in this approach but by using different lenses we hope that we allowed agency in this formulation. As others we have been stunned by the speed of the Taliban victory. We despair at the loss of women's rights. We despair that Afghanis have been attacked by outsiders in this iteration since the Soviet invasion in 1979.

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