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[Jennifer Trahan is Convenor at The Global Institute for the Prevention of Aggression and Clinical Professor at NYU Center for Global Affairs. Trahan was a member of the Council of Advisers on the Application of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court to Cyberwarfare.]

With Russian forces poised on the border of Ukraine and the US Government reportedly considering a major troop deployment to Eastern Europe, there could hardly be a starker reminder of the importance of the crime of aggression. 

Dr. Fatemeh Mahrough

Translated by: Majed Kiasat

Sino-Afghan relations have gone through many ups and downs since the beginning of official relations in 1955. Despite the shortest joint border length (76 km), managing these relations has always been one of China's most important and challenging foreign policies due to the complexity of Afghanistan's political geography. 

By Siamak Kakaei, Researcher in Turkish Issues

Translated by : Zahra Akbari

The Turkish Justice and Development Party (AKP) celebrated its 19th anniversary on November 3rd. A celebration in which the autumn song of its first historic victory in 2002 cannot be seen.

Dr. Akram Salehi


Translated by: Majed Kiasat


For many years, Iran's nuclear program has been one of the most fundamental issues in the world at the international level. Accordingly, the publication of the text of Join Comprehensive Plan of Action on July 14, 2015 was an important step in advancing Iran's nuclear program.

Seyed Ghaem Mousavi


Translated by: Majed Kiasat


Undoubtedly, many changes in the basis of Iran's negotiations with the six major world powers can also affect the interests of other regional and global actors. The quality of this negotiation and its tangible outcomes can even affect the regional order in the short, medium and ultimately the geopolitics of the region in the long run.

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